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Aug. Die politischen Spannungen zwischen Deutschland und Saudi-Arabien haben deutsche Arzneimittel- und Medizintechnik-Hersteller auf den. Saudi-Arabien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise Deutschland und Saudi- Arabien: bilaterale Beziehungen Vertretungen Saudi-Arabiens in Deutschland. Arabien steht für: Arabische Welt, eine Region in Nordafrika und Vorderasien; Arabische Halbinsel, eine Halbinsel auf der Arabischen Platte; Arabische Platte, . April in Berlin seine Pforten. Der Plan sah die Übergabe fast der gesamten israelisch besetzen Gebiete an die Palästinenser vor sowie die Anerkennung des Palästinenserstaates mit der Hauptstadt Ost-Jerusalem. Seitdem gelten die Vereinigten Staaten als enger Verbündeter des Königreiches. Callamard ist Sonderberichterstatterin über willkürliche Hinrichtungen. Ihre Reisepässe allerdings wurden eingezogen, so dass sie das Land nicht verlassen können. Damit würden die Parlamentarier den Anschuldigungen Gewicht verleihen. Teil des Plans ist, den Anteil der Frauen an der Erwerbsbevölkerung erheblich zu erhöhen. Cheney bettelt in Riad. Gegenüber revolutionär-islamistischen Gruppierungen erscheint die Schicht der staatstragenden Religionsgelehrten einerseits als stabilisierendes Element. Wollte zu den Lokalwahlen kandidieren, durfte dann aber doch nicht:

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The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders such as the Blue Hole Red Sea at Dahab.

These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls.

Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic i. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse , Arabian camel , sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc.

The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions [] Arabic: The regions are further divided into governorates Arabic: This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities Arabic: The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates Arabic: As of October , Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world.

Saudi Arabia is considered an " energy superpower ". Saudi Arabia officially has about billion barrels 4. In the s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth.

From — "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized.

According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities.

Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in , the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom.

The government has also made an attempt at " Saudizing " the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.

Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since Among its plans were to launch "economic cities" e. King Abdullah Economic City to be completed by , in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs.

As of [update] four cities were planned. In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector especially in the southwest but not only based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc.

Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any. In December , the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube.

Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners.

The rate of local unemployment is Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the s. The government launched an extensive program to promote modern farming technology; to establish rural roads, irrigation networks and storage and export facilities; and to encourage agricultural research and training institutions.

As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs.

The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world.

Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. In addition, Saudi farmers grow substantial amounts of other grains such as barley, sorghum and millet.

As of , in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East.

Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1, gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East.

In , the country built its first grain silos. By , it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some thirty countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 3.

The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers.

Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes.

The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. In the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world.

The farm covers hectares and has 5 million olive trees. The Guinness World Records also took into consideration their production capacity of tonnes of high quality of olive oil, while the kingdom consumes double that.

The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka , a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. Sakaka dates back more than 4, years.

Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination , water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades.

Given the substantial oil wealth , water is provided almost for free. Despite improvements service quality remains poor. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.

Since , the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants.

Since , the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well. Although most tourism in Saudi Arabia still largely involves religious pilgrimages, there is growth in the leisure tourism sector.

According to the World Bank , approximately Starting December , the kingdom will offer an electronic visa for foreign visitors to attend sport events and concerts.

The old city of Jeddah. A farm in Al-Qassim Province. Faifa mountains in Jizan Province. The population of Saudi Arabia as of July is estimated to be As late as , most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly.

Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic about 6 million speakers [] , Najdi Arabic about 8 million speakers [] , and Gulf Arabic about 0.

Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog , , Rohingya , , Urdu , , Egyptian Arabic , , and Indonesian , Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim [] officially, all are , and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim.

Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam , are systematically suppressed. According to estimates there are about 1,, Christians in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers.

The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero, [] as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam apostasy and punishes it by death.

There may be a significant fraction of atheists and agnostics in Saudi Arabia, [] [] although they are officially called "terrorists".

In its religious freedom report, the U. Foreign Muslims [] who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship.

Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields, [] and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.

As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for " Saudization " the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country.

Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. This culture has been heavily influenced by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country.

Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture. Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims.

Proponents call the movement " Salafism ", [] and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions.

More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have " religious police " known as Haia or Mutaween , who patrol the streets " enjoining good and forbidding wrong " by enforcing dress codes , strict separation of men and women , attendance at prayer salat five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia Islamic law.

In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex.

Until , the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar , not the international Gregorian calendar , [] but in the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.

Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Businesses are closed three or four times a day [] for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray.

As of [update] approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. In contrast, assigned readings over twelve years of primary and secondary schooling devoted to covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world comes to a total of about 40 pages.

Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal, [] and as of [update] the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" such as Bibles , was reportedly punishable by death.

Within the framework of the National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision , the kingdom allocated million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage.

Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab the Islamic principle of modesty , especially in dress.

Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton known as a thawb , with a keffiyeh a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal or a ghutra a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal worn on the head.

For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel -hair cloak bisht over the top. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion.

This requirement applies to non-Muslim women too and failure to abide can result in police action, particularly in more conservative areas of the country.

During the s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms.

From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching.

In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric , floral , and abstract designs and by calligraphy.

With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes.

Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively.

Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world—albeit generating official hostility in their home country.

Football is the national sport in Saudi Arabia. Scuba diving , windsurfing , sailing and basketball which is played by both men and women are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the Asian Championship.

A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. Falconry , another traditional pursuit, is still practiced.

Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food.

Islamic dietary laws are enforced: Flat, unleavened taboon bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates , fresh fruit, yoghurt and hummus.

Coffee, served in the Arabic style , is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well.

The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia.

Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U. Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" wali , [] As of , a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work.

Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law.

The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia, [] with child marriage no longer common. Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until , were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home.

The religious police , known as the mutawa , impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police , female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz , the son of the late King Fahad , are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.

A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California [] and Dr.

On 25 September , King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote and to be candidates in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission.

In August , a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. The square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park.

In March a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits. In April the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2, screens running by Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies.

Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce.

Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools.

A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track.

The rate of literacy is Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine.

Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions. The Academic Ranking of World Universities , known as Shanghai Ranking, ranked 4 of Saudi Arabian institutions among its — list of the top universities in the world.

According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis [] and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment.

Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia.

According to the educational plan for secondary high school education — Hijri , students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer.

The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism , leading to reform efforts. It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.

As of , Saudi Arabia ranks 28 worldwide in terms of high-quality research output according to the renowned scientific journal Nature.

Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see KSA disambiguation.

Country in Western Asia. Saudi Arabian Saudi informal. List of countries named after people , House of Saud , and Arab etymology.

History of Saudi Arabia. Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia. Unification of Saudi Arabia. Modern history of Saudi Arabia. Politics of Saudi Arabia.

Legal system of Saudi Arabia. Human rights in Saudi Arabia. Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia. Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia.

The Arabian oryx are found in the deserts and are endangered animals. The Arabian horse is native to Arabia, and an important element of traditional Arabian folklore.

The highly endangered Arabian leopard. Red Sea coral and marine fish. Largest cities or towns in Saudi Arabia Data. Economy of Saudi Arabia. Agriculture in Saudi Arabia.

Tourism in Saudi Arabia. Masmak fort in Riyadh. Saudi Arabian people and Demographics of Saudi Arabia. Religion in Saudi Arabia. Culture of Saudi Arabia.

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Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 25 October Army Remount station, the former W. Kellogg Ranch in California. In the postwar era, Poland, [] Spain, [] and Germany developed or re-established many well-respected Arabian stud farms.

While only a few Arabians were exported from behind the Iron Curtain during the Cold War , those who did come to the west caught the eye of breeders worldwide.

Improved international relations between eastern Europe and the west led to major imports of Polish and Russian-bred Arabian horses to western Europe and the United States in the s and s.

Organizations such as the World Arabian Horse Association WAHO created consistent standards for transferring the registration of Arabian horses between different nations.

Today, Arabian horses are traded all over the world. The first horses on the American mainland since the end of the Ice Age arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors.

Many horses escaped or were stolen, becoming the foundation stock of the American Mustang. Colonists from England also brought horses of Arabian breeding to the eastern seaboard.

Keene Richard was the first American known to have specifically bred Arabian horses. He traveled to the desert in and to obtain breeding stock, which he crossed on Thoroughbreds , and also bred purebred Arabians.

Unfortunately, his horses were lost during the Civil War and have no known purebred Arabian descendants today. Leopard is the only stallion imported prior to who left known purebred descendants in America.

In , the Arabian Horse Registry of America was established, recording 71 animals, [] and by , the number had reached half a million.

Today there are more Arabians registered in North America than in the rest of the world put together. The origins of the registry date to , when the Hamidie Society sponsored an exhibit of Arabian horses from what today is Syria at the World Fair in Chicago.

Records are unclear if 40 or 45 horses were imported for the exposition, but seven died in a fire shortly after arrival. The 28 horses that remained at the end of the exhibition stayed in America and were sold at auction when the Hamidie Society went bankrupt.

Major Arabian importations to the United States included those of Davenport and Bradley, who teamed up to purchase several stallions and mares directly from the Bedouin in Brown of the Maynesboro Stud, interested in the Arabian as a cavalry mount, imported many Arabians over a period of years, starting in Army Remount Service , which stood purebred stallions at public stud for a reduced rate.

In the s, Arabians became a popular status symbol and were marketed similarly to fine art. When the Tax Reform Act of closed the tax-sheltering " passive investment " loophole, limiting the use of horse farms as tax shelters, [] [] the Arabian market was particularly vulnerable due to over-saturation and artificially inflated prices, and it collapsed, forcing many breeders into bankruptcy and sending many purebred Arabians to slaughter.

Arabian horses were introduced to Australia in the earliest days of European Settlement. Early imports included both purebred Arabians and light Spanish " jennets " from Andalusia , many Arabians also came from India.

Based on records describing stallions "of Arabic and Persian blood", the first Arabian horses were probably imported to Australia in several groups between and Throughout the 19th century, many more Arabians came to Australia, though most were used to produce crossbred horses and left no recorded purebred descendants.

In the early 20th century, more Arabian horses, mostly of Crabbet bloodlines, arrived in Australia. The first Arabians of Polish breeding arrived in , and Egyptian lines were first imported in Arabian horses from the rest of the world followed, and today the Australian Arabian horse registry is the second largest in the world, next to that of the United States.

Arabian horses today are found all over the world. They are no longer classified by Bedouin strain, but are informally classified by the nation of origin of famed horses in a given pedigree.

Popular types of Arabians are labeled "Polish", "Spanish", "Crabbet", "Russian", "Egyptian", and "Domestic" describing horses whose ancestors were imported to the United States prior to , including those from programs such as Kellogg , Davenport , Maynesboro , Babson , Dickenson and Selby.

Each set of bloodlines has its own devoted followers, with the virtues of each hotly debated. Most debates are between those who value the Arabian most for its refined beauty and those who value the horse for its stamina and athleticism; there are also a number of breeders who specialize in preservation breeding of various bloodlines.

Controversies exist over the relative "purity" of certain animals; breeders argue about the genetic "purity" of various pedigrees, discussing whether some horses descend from "impure" animals that cannot be traced to the desert Bedouin.

Because of the genetic strength of the desert-bred Arabian horse, Arabian bloodlines have played a part in the development of nearly every modern light horse breed, including the Thoroughbred , [] Orlov Trotter , [] Morgan , [] American Saddlebred , [] American Quarter Horse , [] and Warmblood breeds such as the Trakehner.

Today, people cross Arabians with other breeds to add refinement, endurance, agility and beauty. There is intense debate over the role the Arabian played in the development of other light horse breeds.

Before DNA-based research developed, one hypothesis, based on body types and conformation, suggested the light, "dry", oriental horse adapted to the desert climate had developed prior to domestication; [] DNA studies of multiple horse breeds now suggest that while domesticated horses arose from multiple mare lines, there is very little variability in the Y-chromosome between breeds.

There is little doubt that humans crossed "oriental" blood on that of other types to create light riding horses; the only actual questions are at what point the "oriental" prototype could be called an "Arabian", how much Arabian blood was mixed with local animals, and at what point in history.

For some breeds, such as the Thoroughbred , Arabian influence of specific animals is documented in written stud books. For example, while outside cultures, and the horses they brought with them, influenced the predecessor to the Iberian horse in both the time of Ancient Rome and again with the Islamic invasions of the 8th century, it is difficult to trace precise details of the journeys taken by waves of conquerors and their horses as they traveled from the Middle East to North Africa and across Gibraltar to southern Europe.

Mitochondrial DNA studies of modern Andalusian horses of the Iberian peninsula and Barb horses of North Africa present convincing evidence that both breeds crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and influenced one another.

Arabians and Barbs, though probably related to one another, are quite different in appearance, [] and horses of both Arabian and Barb type were present in the Muslim armies that occupied Europe.

Arabians are versatile horses that compete in many equestrian fields, including horse racing , the horse show disciplines of saddle seat , Western pleasure , and hunt seat , as well as dressage , cutting , reining , endurance riding , show jumping , eventing , youth events such as equitation , and others.

They are used as pleasure riding , trail riding , and working ranch horses for those who are not interested in competition.

Arabians dominate the sport of endurance riding because of their stamina. Classes offered include Western pleasure , reining , hunter type and saddle seat English pleasure , and halter , plus the very popular "Native" costume class.

Other nations also sponsor major shows strictly for purebred and partbred Arabians, including Great Britain [] France, [] Spain, [] Poland, [] and the United Arab Emirates.

Purebred Arabians have excelled in open events against other breeds. One of the most famous examples in the field of western riding competition was the Arabian mare Ronteza , who defeated 50 horses of all breeds to win the Reined Cow Horse championship at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, California.

Part-Arabians have also appeared at open sport horse events and even Olympic level competition. The Anglo-Arabian Linon was ridden to an Olympic silver medal for France in Dressage in and , as well as a team gold in , and another French Anglo-Arabian, Harpagon, was ridden to a team gold medal and an individual silver in dressage at the Olympics.

Arabians are involved in a wide variety of activities, including fairs, movies, parades, circuses and other places where horses are showcased.

Arabians are mascots for football teams, performing crowd-pleasing activities on the field and sidelines. One of the horses who serves as "Traveler" , the mascot for the University of Southern California Trojans , has been a purebred Arabian.

Arabians also are used on search and rescue teams and occasionally for police work. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Arabian horse disambiguation. Equine coat color and Equine coat color genetics. Arabian Horse Association and Endurance riding.

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